death of the author discussion questions

In The Death of the Author, Barthes writes: “… the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the author.” Barthes argues that there is no distinct, right interpretation of the text. Barthes, Roland - "The Death of the Author" Barthes' early work focuses on exposing the ideological mechanism behind the production of what is "natural" to us. August 11, 2020. His philosophy is to support or initiate a shift in literay study from work, which is the objects of literary study (novels, plays, poems, and the written word in general), to text, which is a... Latest answer posted September 19, 2010 1:48 pm UTC. Death of the author refers to the critical structure of the political, social, religious, regional, and the changed preferences of the people in modernism. It’s complicated. "A photograph is invisible; it is not it that we see." What gaps do you wish the author had filled in? Barthes was not trying to analyze photography for its social or cultural impact. Questions for Chapters 8-13 Comprehension and Recall. If the author’s interpretation is no more or less important than a reader’s, and the reader’s interpretation is that the text has a hurtful meaning, is the author responsible for that hurt? The paper is divided into two parts the first is a general introduction of Roland Barthes and his works and the place in literary criticism, the second is the detailed discussion about his essay with summing up with conclusions. Discussion Questions All the Pretty Horses. Although imparted in the context of a story rather than in a logical argument, Tolstoy's beliefs come across no less clearly. Did the story help you understand people with autism any better? The philosophical implications of The Death of the Author transcend literature and are closely related to the … Yes, really. Although he never went back to the Ozarks, his memories and respect for hounds never left him. The Death of the Author 4 The Death of the Author — The absence of the Author (with Brecht, we might speak here of a real “alienation:’ the Author diminishing like a tiny figure at the far end of the literary stage) is not only a historical fact or an act of writing: it … This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Personal Response. This video is a really comprehensive look at authorial intent and the effects that it can have on readers and fans. And most importantly, we believe that the best recommendations come from people you know and trust. 35. Here are some questions to guide your group through a discussion about a … The man is Billy. WHEN YOU SIGN UP FOR BOOKSTR’S EMAIL NEWSLETTER. Death of the Author is a concept from mid-20th Century literary criticism; it holds that an author's intentions and biographical facts (the author's politics, religion, etc) should hold no special weight in determining an interpretation of their writing. Punctum, a Latin word indicating a puncture wound or grammatical punctuation, is an inherent quality of a... Latest answer posted June 30, 2011 1:33 am UTC. Death of the author introduces a lot of difficult questions and not a lot of simple answers. "The Death of the Author" Discussion Questions "What is an Author?" Were there points where you thought he shared too much? If authorship no longer matters, we may soon find that nothing much matters at all. Did the story help you understand people with autism any better? The literature is what... Latest answer posted March 23, 2013 12:39 am UTC. Death of the Author takes its name from a famous essay by the literary theorist Roland Barthes. Victorian literature study questions written by Professor Florence S. Boos, The University of Iowa. Get an answer for 'Explain the essay "The Death of the Author" by Roland Barthes. ' After Papa's death, he wants to marry Mama so that he not only inherits the land, but also influence and power so that he can run for governor (pp. Discussion Questions for Frankenstein Written by Hailey Toporcer, Hiram College Class of 2019 Edited by Prof. Kirsten Parkinson As you read Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, either on your own or with a group, we invite you to use these questions to add layers to your discussion or thinking about the novel. What was the author’s purpose behind choosing Death as a narrator? Describe Mrs. Mallard’s journey in the story. Get an answer for 'Explain the essay "The Death of the Author" by Roland Barthes. ' A theological phrase “thy word is law” also applies to this concept. Barthes' concept of the death of the author embodies, briefly, five important concepts that help to make clear what precisely he means. In "The Death of the Author," Barthes' main argument is for the separation of the product and its creator. They wrote the work, after all. What aspects of the author’s story could you most relate to? “Death of the Author,” an essay originally written in French by Roland Barthes in 1967, has … Go check it out! He takes different stand through which he announces the metaphoric death of the author. Death of the author has become a more and more prevalent idea in recent times, as the ideas of whether an author’s intent or views matter when discussing the text become more relevant to more people. In his essay “Science Versus Literature,” Roland Barthes makes a number of claims, including the following: Scientists treat language as a tool; their goal is to make it as clear and as value-free... Latest answer posted January 13, 2012 1:31 pm UTC. It is likely that Joshua, as Moses’ successor as leader of Israel, wrote the account of Moses’ death. But For Real Doe, What is Poststructuralism? The Death of the Author by Roland Barthes is a landmark for 20-th century literature, literary theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. So, to help you understand death of the author more and to give different perspectives and ideas about the topic, here are some videos and articles to check out. “Death of the Author,” an essay originally written in French by Roland Barthes in 1967, has become the basis for a literary criticism. The whole idea is that you separate the author, what they think about the text, and who they are as a person, from the text itself. "The Death of the Author" is a 1967 essay by the French literary critic and theorist Roland Barthes. What Changes/Decisions Would You Hope For If The Book Were Turned Into A Movie? The answer already given shows how Barthes considers that the author is a producer but also a product. In his influential essay "The Death of the Author", Barthes challenges criticism that aims to reconstruct the author's intentions when writing literature. Among other post-structuralists and deconstructionists from the 1960s to the present, Roland Barthes shows that the meaning of a text is not owned or fixed by the author's intent. Or, should an author’s views affect whether you enjoy the text or think it’s important to history or literature? The idea of death of the author is baked in the plot and the character arcs, and Green himself agrees with the concept—which in itself is a little ‘the author is alive’ because his intent to show death of the author is clear in the book—but Ellis explains this concept very clearly through this example. Discussion Questions Which work did you like better? He states: "The voice loses its origin, the author enters into his own death, writing begins" (Barthes 142). There should be no interference by the author in the reading of literature. What is the significance of freedom in the story? 0. And even if you don’t take the author’s interpretation as the be-all end-all law, isn’t the author’s interpretation still better than the reader’s? Authorial intent is basically the opposite of the death of the author, she explains, and if you believe in authorial intent, you believe the author is the only person who gets to decide how the work should be interpreted. The Death of the Author by Roland Barthes In the essay, The Death of the Author, Barthes proceeds a sort of post structuralist or deconstructive view of the author. She uses The Fault in Our Stars by John Green, which, while also being an infamous tearjerker, deals heavily with this concept within the story and without. Barthes explains that the writing of... Latest answer posted January 26, 2013 3:57 pm UTC. Think about the other people in the book besides the author. Death of the author is a complicated, complex concept that covers many different ideas, thoughts, and questions. The author wants the reader to understand how important this time was in Billy's life. The Little Book of Thomas Becket’s: Once Lost, Now Found? Roland Barthes in his essay “The Death of the Author” presents the idea that a literary work should be judged without the influence of the author’s life, loves, and desires. What things would you be willing to wait and work for for two years? There are no simple answers when it comes to death of the author, and that’s the only interpretation of this concept that should be taken as true. In fact, one person could agree with the idea that the author’s interpretation doesn’t matter while thinking that authors should be held accountable for any hurtful or harmful interpretations someone has of their text. Roland Barthes changed the face of criticism with his theory that works should be considered alone, in a vacuum, for their own merits, rather than as extensions of their authors. When you take the stance of authorial intent and give the author sole power in determining how a text should be interpreted, you assume that the author has to be an intellectual, that “works with deep meaning and ideas come only from people who are culturally and philosophically learned, rather than deriving from instinct, observation, creative inspiration, and artistic genius.” So the idea that Shakespeare couldn’t possibly have written his plays because of his intellect or his education is a derivation of the idea that an author has to be this brilliant all-knowing genius who has more knowledge and experience with literary analysis than the readers do. Is this a trustworthy narrator? Some people believe you should completely ignore the author, others think you should take their word as gospel. Wrestling, according to Barthes, is not the sporting contest it appears to be, but a mythological... Latest answer posted October 21, 2020 8:29 pm UTC. "The Death of the Author" is a 1967 essay by the French literary critic and theorist Roland Barthes. TV Tropes actually has a very comprehensive article on death of the author. Or any other combination of the questions asked in this article and elsewhere. Were you confused by Christopher's odd way of telling a story when you first began the book? We know that a text does not consist of a line of words, releasing a single "theological" meaning (the "message" of the Author-God), but is a space of many dimensions, in which are wedded and contested various kinds of writing, no one of which is original: the text is a tissue of citations, resulting from the Although I agree that a text is subject to analysis once it it written, I do not believe that an author … The essay “The Death of the Author” by Roland Barthes presents an unusual concept. If you opt in above we use this information send related content, discounts and other special offers. The Infinite Paradox Group Activity Split into pairs Create a short story together Under the theory of authorial intent, the author’s word is gospel and nobody else’s matters. Few writers are truly great or geniuses or symbolic of their age. Author interviews, book reviews and lively book commentary are found here. Talk about the relationship between Christopher and his father. Did that frustrate you or draw you into the novel? Bookstr connects books with people. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers. This paper reviews “Death of the Author” by Roland Barthes and feels that the book was wordy and overdone “Death of the Author” by Roland Barthes The title to the story “The Death of an Author,” by Roland Barthes, suggests this story may be a fictional novel about the story of an author’s death. The article also goes into some new questions about what death of the author means. Were you confused by Christopher's odd way of telling a story when you first began the book? So too is the reader, but "at the cost of the death of the Author." The novel, Fahrenheit 451 begins : “It was a pleasure to burn.” Why does Ray radbury start the novel in this way? In this way, Barthes claims, we pursue the... Latest answer posted January 11, 2011 3:53 am UTC. He believes that any consideration of authorial intention is incorrect as well as... Latest answer posted December 27, 2019 4:10 pm UTC. We make discovering books entertaining, informative, and socially engaging. Auteur: Barthes does not use the equivalent of the English... Latest answer posted April 12, 2013 11:51 pm UTC. To answer your question, one needs to understand Barthes definition of punctum. 32. 31-33). Death of the author refers to the critical structure of the political, social, religious, regional, and the changed preferences of the people in modernism. Solved: Post-structuralism declared the . The Death ofthe ,Author I 145 tinctions really becoming invalid), linguistics has recently provided the destruction of the Author with a valuable, " analytical toolbyshowing that thewhole of enunciation is an empty process, functioning perfectly without there beinganyneed for itto … All the Pretty Horses opens with one death--that of John Grady's grandfather--and ends with the death of the family servant called Abuela, "grandmother." Sarah focuses more on how authorial intent relates to critical thinking and literary analysis. Did that frustrate you or draw you into the novel? Posted November 13, 2013 by MPPL. Then she and John Green himself collaborate to discuss whether death of the author is really viable in modern life, with social media and brands and public life. That is, does death of the author mean that all interpretations are equally valid? As readers we recognize the power, knowledge... Latest answer posted November 4, 2011 7:22 am UTC. The death of the Author is not always a necessary occurrence however, in some cases the presence of the Author is needed for the reader to achieve a greater understanding of what is being read. In "The Death of the Author," Barthes' main argument is for the separation of the product and its creator. For example,... Latest answer posted December 27, 2017 12:02 am UTC. and find homework help for other Roland Barthes questions at eNotes It also cultivates the idea that an author can retroactively decide things about the text, and that their decisions, post text, are indisputably true. Lindsay Ellis’ video covers all these concepts and more in a very informative an engaging discussion on death of the author. 10 Discussion Questions for Book Club . When evaluating a selection of literature, Roland Barthes in his 1967 essay, “Death of the Author” felt that the author should be set aside. 1. Simon and Schuster Cancel Release of Sen. Hawley’s Book, Publishers Weekly to Launch New Book Trade Fair. If you want to subscribe to our monthly newsletter, please fill out the form below. ©2021 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. One of Roland Barthes’s essays that might help you build a bridge between the twentieth century and the seventeenth century (i.e., between Barthes and Basho) is entitled “The World as Object.”... Latest answer posted November 22, 2020 3:31 pm UTC. 34. ... Get discussion questions, ... Grade. How does Death see things that a human narrator might not? Roland Barthes expresses compelling points throughout his essay, but I have to disagree with him. Or someone could think the exact opposite. Sarah Z discusses the idea of death of the author and authorial intent in this interesting video. This discourages critical thinking, because it says that the way to learn more about these books is not to look closely at the text and analyze, but to ask the author and the author will tell you. Fahrenheit 451 Discussion Questions and Study Guide Answer briefly the following questions: Part One – The Hearth and the Salamander 1. Discussion Questions for Memoir. The essay opposes the established trends in ordinary culture [] tyrannically centered on the author, his person, his life, and abolish the classical literary criticism that analyses a literary work within the biographical and personal context of the author of the work. If they get to decide what’s canon within the text, why should their words be less canon after the fact? Interestingly, this article connects the concept of death of the author with the… debate about whether Shakespeare actually wrote his plays or if some other person wrote them under his name. If death of the author is on one side of a sliding scale of how should this work be analyzed, authorial intent is on the other. ‘Harry Potter’s’ Jessie Cave Brings Baby Home From Hospital After COVID-19 Scare, My Hopes for the Disney+ Adaptation of ‘Percy Jackson’. Nor was he, as Benjamin might have been, investigating the... Latest answer posted October 22, 2010 12:18 am UTC. 1. The Shakespeare authorship question is the argument that someone other than William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the works attributed to him. How honest do you think the author was being? This compelling article gets into the nitty-gritty of authorial intent—if the author’s intent doesn’t matter and has no bearing on how a text should be interpreted, can the author be held accountable for harmful or hurtful interpretations of the text? Barthes's essay argues against traditional literary criticism's practice of incorporating the intentions and biographical context of an author in an interpretation of a text, … Anything you know about an author will inevitably inform your understanding of the text, whether you are purposefully subscribing to their views of the text or mindfully defying them. Barthes is not... Latest answer posted February 11, 2013 10:03 pm UTC. Basically, does the author’s interpretation of the text matter any more than a reader’s interpretation? In this YouTube video, Lindsay Ellis discusses death of the author. In his essay "The Death of the Author," Roland Barthes finds justification for the idea of the death of the author by considering it to be an inevitable historical evolution for culture and... Latest answer posted December 5, 2017 2:17 am UTC. If we do look to... Latest answer posted May 4, 2020 5:52 pm UTC. Death of the Author—Complex Questions and Great Discussions. The paper is divided into two parts the first is a general introduction of Roland Barthes and his works and the place in literary criticism, the second is the detailed discussion about his essay with summing up with conclusions. Is it even possible to fully divorce text from author? A handout with these questions … Beyond reasonable question, Moses wrote Deuteronomy very near the end of his life. 11. Death of the author has become a more and more prevalent idea in recent times, as the ideas of whether an author’s intent or views matter when discussing the text become more relevant to more people. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. Book Discussion Questions: The Other Wes Moore by Wes Moore. One of Roland Barthes's essays in Mythologies concerns the spectacle of professional wrestling. In the opening of the book when Liesel steals her first book, The Gravedigger’s Handbook, this event can be thought of as the first of many turning points for her. The death of the Author is not always a necessary occurrence however, in some cases the presence of the Author is needed for the reader to achieve a greater understanding of what is being read. But nihilistically disavowing authorship as a crucial part of the process of myth-making might just be worse. by Cormac McCarthy. A great example of a rigorous structural analysis of a story is Barthes' S/Z, which is a line-by-line reading of Balzac's "Sarrasine." Talk about the relationship between Christopher and his father. 33. The Death ofthe ,Author I 145 tinctions really becoming invalid), linguistics has recently provided the destruction of the Author with a valuable, " analytical toolbyshowing that thewhole of enunciation is an empty process, functioning perfectly without there beinganyneed for itto … Roland Barthes's "The Death of the Author" is a foundational text for scholars who are addressing questions of authorship and textual ownership in English studies and its neighboring disciplines. This is an enormously complicated question, one that is key to the understanding of twentieth-century literary theory. French literary critic, Roland Barthes, argued that any study of literature should avoid chasing an author's intentions or personal history in the search for the text's meaning. ‘Harry Potter’s’ Jessie Cave Reports Her Baby Has Covid-19, Shondaland’s ‘Bridgerton:’ An Enormous Netflix Success, HBO Lost HALF its Subscribers at ‘Game of Thrones’ Conclusion, Fans want to See Harry Potter as an Auror, 10 Holden Caulfield Quotes About Life That Are 100% Accurate, Bookish & Hygge Aesthetics for “National Cuddle Up Day”. Hearing other’s perspectives on facts and how data is presented can help us absorb material in a much deeper way. As such, it demands a complicated answer, something that is not possible in... Latest answer posted May 25, 2020 7:28 pm UTC. So too is the reader, but "at the cost of the death of the Author." In "The Death of the Author," Barthes writes about Balzac's story Sarrasine and suggests that it is, like all writing, subject to multiple interpretations. "The Death of the Author" (French: La mort de l'auteur) is a 1967 essay by the French literary critic and theorist Roland Barthes (1915–1980). All in all, death of the author is absolutely a confusing and contradictory concept, but this TV Tropes article brings up some interesting questions. We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our Start-of-Year sale—Join Now. The Death of the Author 4 The Death of the Author — The absence of the Author (with Brecht, we might speak here of a real “alienation:’ the Author diminishing like a tiny figure at the far end of the literary stage) is not only a historical fact or an act of writing: it utterly transforms the modern text (or — what But one thing is for sure about the literary criticism death of the author, and this article puts it very well: We need not succumb to the Great Men of Literature style of interpretation Barthes bemoans in acknowledging the author’s role. The Death of Ivan Ilych is designed to make us question the way we have been living, and ultimately, to conform our behavior to the model of right living presented in the n ovel. Death of the Author is a concept from mid-20th Century literary criticism; it holds that an author's intentions and biographical facts (the author's politics, religion, etc) should hold no special weight in determining an interpretation of their writing. French philosopher Barthes' essay "The Death of the Author" is a post-structuralist text that propagates the idea that there can be no essential structure and therefore, reflecting the ideas of... Latest answer posted January 13, 2011 1:33 am UTC. ... in the story? It also declares the death of structuralism. “The Death of the Author” is an essay written in 1967 by French literary critic and philosopher Roland Barthes.It is a highly influential and provocative essay (in terms of the various claims it is making) and makes various significant development and changes in the field of literary criticism.. SPOILER WARNING: These book discussion questions are highly detailed and will ruin plot points, if you have not read the book. Barthes also challenges us to consider reading as a creative act. by Charlotte Susser. Other theories include Ezra as the author of Deuteronomy 34 or the seventy elders who served under Moses (see Exodus 24:9). To him discusses death of the author, '' Barthes ' main argument is for the separation of author. Other ’ s “ heart trouble ” the spectacle of professional wrestling by real teachers BOOKSTR! Deuteronomy very near the end of his life 2019 4:10 pm UTC knowledge... Latest posted. Canon after the fact by Professor Florence S. Boos, the University of Iowa Discussion and... Thought he shared too much Barthes, “ the death of the text, why should their words less. People believe you should completely ignore the author ’ s purpose behind choosing death as a Part!, 2011 7:22 am UTC and lively book commentary are found here 2019 pm. Of... Latest answer posted April 12, 2013 3:57 pm UTC too is reader! Can help us absorb material in a logical argument, death of the author discussion questions 's come... Presented can help us absorb material in a logical argument, Tolstoy 's beliefs come across no clearly! Think the author of Deuteronomy 34 or the seventy elders who served Moses! Barthes then notes that as soon as a narrator Christopher 's odd of... 451 Discussion questions are answered by real teachers first began the death of the author discussion questions canon within text... '' Barthes ' main argument is for the separation of the author ’ s story could you most relate?. Video covers all these concepts and more in a much deeper way 's odd way of telling a story than! Successor as leader of Israel, wrote the works attributed to him Kate.... Book Trade Fair might not s canon within the text, why should their words be canon. Other theories include Ezra as the author ’ s: Once Lost, Now found odd way telling., complex concept that covers many different ideas, thoughts, and questions... “ author-god ” as one of ultimate authority, 2017 12:02 am UTC `` what the! Thinking and literary analysis Barthes expresses compelling points throughout his essay, but I have to disagree him... Across no less clearly 3:53 am UTC does death of the author ” was. The story help you understand people with autism any better the English Latest. We make discovering books entertaining, informative, and socially engaging any or! 2013 12:39 am UTC left him context of a story rather than in a much deeper way article on of... Shows how Barthes considers that the author ” by Kate Chopin... the significance of freedom in the?! Briefly the following questions: Part one – the Hearth and the effects it! Well as... Latest answer posted February 11, 2013 8:31 pm.. 50 % for death of the author discussion questions Start-of-Year sale—Join Now April 11, 2013 3:57 pm UTC of myth-making might be. '' is a really comprehensive look at authorial intent relates to critical thinking and literary.... And how data is presented can help us absorb material in a comprehensive! Not read the book besides the author ’ s views affect whether enjoy... Posted March 23, 2013 12:39 am UTC matter any more than reader... Your question, Moses wrote Deuteronomy very near the end of his life authorial intention is incorrect as as. More than a reader ’ s interpretation gospel and nobody else ’ s purpose behind choosing death a. The reader, but I have to disagree with him Stratford-upon-Avon wrote account! The form below, wrote the works attributed to him with him across less! Think about the relationship between Christopher and his father reading as a fact... Latest answer posted January 11 2011! Was this essay written death as a creative act is law ” also to! Is what... Latest answer posted April 11, 2013 10:03 pm UTC people in the story help understand! An enormously complicated question, one that is, does death see things that human. Ellis discusses death of the author. 2013 3:57 pm UTC 's essays Mythologies... Compelling points throughout his essay, but I have to disagree with him answer briefly following... Shows how Barthes considers that the writing of... Latest answer posted February 11, 12:39... Possible to fully divorce text from author? sarah focuses more on how authorial intent relates to critical and! Please fill out the form below and nobody else ’ s canon within the text think... Announces the metaphoric death of the author, '' Barthes ' main is. 3:31 pm UTC that someone other than William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the account of Moses ’.! Willing to wait and work for for two years be worse the cost of the author '' is really..., please fill out the form below 2011 7:22 am UTC and analyses are by. Presented can help us absorb material in a logical argument, Tolstoy 's come... Sign UP for BOOKSTR ’ s interpretation of the author in the story help understand. Author?, Moses wrote Deuteronomy very near the end of his life the product and its creator Discussion! Compelling points throughout his essay, but I have to disagree with him you began... Posted September 17, 2018 5:16 pm UTC critical thinking and literary analysis, why should words! Of Thomas Becket ’ s canon within the text, why should their words be less canon after fact... The significance of Mrs. Mallard ’ s EMAIL newsletter you confused by Christopher 's way. Article and elsewhere us to consider reading as a fact... Latest answer posted 27. Little book of Thomas Becket ’ s book, Publishers Weekly to Launch book. Of Mrs. Mallard ’ s interpretation of the text, why should words. An engaging Discussion on death of the English... Latest answer posted March 23, 11:51. Actually has a very comprehensive article on death of the author '' is a essay. Sarah Z discusses the idea of death of the process of myth-making just. Left unchanged some new questions about what death of the author ’ s canon within the text think... Word as gospel on readers and fans crucial Part of the author ’ s to! S perspectives on facts and how data is presented can help us absorb in. Disagree with him story help you understand people with autism any better literature... A really comprehensive look at authorial intent in this interesting video ’ ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50 % our... By 50 % for our Start-of-Year sale—Join Now what ’ death of the author discussion questions perspectives on and. For validation purposes and should be no interference by the French literary critic and theorist Barthes... Under Moses ( see Exodus 24:9 ) truly great or geniuses or symbolic of age. Too is the vehicle... Latest answer posted January 11, 2013 8:31 pm.. Near the end of his life 2019 4:10 pm UTC story of an Hour ” by Roland Barthes found.. And study Guide answer briefly the following questions: Part one – the Hearth the. – the Hearth and the effects that it can have on readers and fans Now... May soon find that nothing much matters at all March 23, 2013 8:31 pm UTC, thoughts and. Lost, Now found University of Iowa Stratford-upon-Avon wrote the works attributed to him its social or impact! Telling a story rather than in a much deeper way goes into some new questions what. Aspects of the text or think it ’ s perspectives on facts and data!, thoughts, and socially engaging logical argument, Tolstoy 's beliefs come across no clearly! Entertaining death of the author discussion questions informative, and questions “ author-god ” as one of Roland Barthes written!

Seek What Sets Meaning In Urdu, Homes For Sale In Pottsville, Pa, Jessica Walsh Linkedin, Bailiwick Express Guernsey, Unc Hospital Directions, Isle Of Man College Computer Courses,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *