polyols vs sugar

NLM It is produced by the human body, occurs in fruit, beer and berries, is also contained in some medicines (e.g. Instead, they are a group of low-digestible carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. The sugar replacer (polyol) gives these foods mild sweetness as well as the bulk and texture of sugar; the other alternative sweeteners bring the sweetness up to the level consumers expect. Polyols (Sugar Alcohols) Polyols, Wikipedia tells us, are made by hydrolyzing a starch (usually corn or sucrose) and then hydrogenating it. This is a detailed article about sugar alcohols and their health effects. They contain partly sugar while the other part is made up of alcohol. In fact, xylitol and erythritol may even help prevent tooth decay, which is why it’s often used in toothpaste and sugar-free mints or gums. Due to their unique structure, polyols are incom-pletely digested and/or absorbed by the body. All rights reserved. However, most sugar alcohols pass through to your large intestine, where they’re fermented by gut bacteria. Br J Nutr. Epub 2009 Aug 21. 2019 Dec 5;8(12):644. doi: 10.3390/foods8120644. Interest now arises because of their multiple potential health benefits. Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing … Sugar based polyols are low-calorie sweeteners and are used to improve the shelf life and anti-browning properties of food products. The solubility and viscosity of sugars (glucose, lactose, leucrose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, and trehalose), polyols (maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol), and polysaccharides (β-cyclodextrin, dextrans, and inulin) in water and water−ethanol mixtures was investigated at 310 K. The increase in ethanol fraction caused a decrease in solubility in all cases. 5.8.6 Maltitol. 2020 Jul 20;17(14):5227. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17145227. Monosaccharides are the simplest type of sugar and contain just one type of sugar molecule. Polyol and other food GI values could be used to estimate the GI of food mixtures containing polyols without underestimation. People disagree on how much sugar is safe to eat each day. Specifically, sugar alcohols are polyols (that’s the “P” in FODMAPs). What Is Sorbitol? A polyol (or sugar alcohol) is not a sugar, nor an alcohol. Polyols are sugar-free sweeteners. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Excessive sugar intake is linked to health conditions, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases (2, 5). quantum satis / Polyols are a group of low-digestible carbohydrates derived from the hydrogenation of their sugar or syrup source (e.g., lactitol from lactose). quantum satis / Sugar reduction with Polyols. Some types taste as sweet as table sugar, while others have half its sweetness (1). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Polyols. Polyols are carbohydrates but they are not sugars. However, they have a different chemical structure, and your body does not absorb them as efficiently. It is important that you remove high FODMAP sugar alcohols during the low FODMAP phase and test them in the reintroduction phase, to see if you can add them back into your diet. Sorbitol A polyol with 2.6 calories per gram (vs. sugar’s 4.0 cal/gram) used as a sweetener and a humectant. The best polyol is erythritol – genuinely zero-carb The best polyol – genuinely almost zero-carb (around 0.1% sugar) – is erythritol. Disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharide sugars bound together. They also regulate moisture, taste, and sweetness. Last medically reviewed on March 24, 2020, Experts believe that excess sugar consumption is a major cause of obesity and many chronic diseases. Additionally, they are often slightly less sweet, offering 25–100% of the sweetness of table sugar. They are used cup-for-cup [volume-for-volume] in the same amount as sugar is used, unlike acesulfame potassium, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose which are used in very small amounts. T1 - Amino acids, polyols and soluble fibres as sugar replacers in bakery applications. Group I. Polyols are a group of low-digestible ingredients made of carbohydrates that provide, on average, 2 calories per gram vs. the 4 calories per gram in most other carbohydrates.  |  Polyols — another name for sugar alcohols — are included in the FODMAPs acronym, which stands for fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. Polyols are high FODMAP sugar alcohols that like to sneak into our diets and cause digestive distress! But sugar converts 50% into glucose and 50% into fructose, so the same 10g of sugar will actually convert into 5g of glucose. Extra jam and extra jelly as defined by Directive 2001/113/EEC . Health benefits of low glycaemic index foods, such as pulses, in diabetic patients and healthy individuals. 2007 Dec;61 Suppl 1:S122-31. What sweeteners are keto friendly? Common types of sugar alcohols include xylitol, erythritol, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, isomalt, and lactitol (1). On l'utilise souvent pour remplacer le sucre, l'amidon et le gras dans les aliments comme les gâteaux, les confiseries, les crèmes-desserts (poudings) et les desserts en général. Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol (polyol) commonly used as a sweetener in so-called sugar-free sweets and chewing gum, diet and diabetic foods. Simple sugars can be divided into two main categories — monosaccharides and disaccharides. A role for polyols and polyol foods to hydrate the colonic contents and aid laxation is now recognised by physicians. They can be natural or artificially produced. A major focus here is the glycaemic index (GI) of polyols as regards the health implications of low-GI foods. As nouns the difference between alcohol and polyol is that alcohol is (organic chemistry|countable) any of a class of organic compounds (such as ethanol) containing a hydroxyl functional group (-oh) while polyol is (organic chemistry) any organic compound having three or more hydroxyl functional groups; a polyhydric alcohol. eCollection 2020. They’re also less digestible, which may cause side effects in some people. Sugar alcohols, also called polyols, are a type of carbohydrate whose structure resembles both sugars and alcohol. This means they taste sweet but are not absorbed and metabolized in the same way as sugar.  |  These sweeteners taste like sugar but have several special advantages. Erythritol is a polyol (sugar alcohol) and it can be obtained from a couple of fermented foods or fruits. Otherwise known as glucitol, sorbitol is much lower in calories than regular table sugar, and it is also lower on the glycemic index. Polyols can also be used in combination with intensive edulcorants for perfect results. Sugar and sugar alcohols are sweet-tasting carbs with slightly different chemical structures. They provide significantly less than the traditional four calories per gram assigned to carbohydrates in general. In general some improvement in long-term glycaemic control was discernible on reducing the glycaemic load via GI by as little as 15-20 g daily. Saraiva A, Carrascosa C, Raheem D, Ramos F, Raposo A. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Such potential health benefits are reviewed. Plausible Biological Interactions of Low- and Non-Calorie Sweeteners with the Intestinal Microbiota: An Update of Recent Studies. Leur pouvoir sucrant diffère entre 0,4 et 1 fois celui du sucre ou saccharose. Les polyols sont des édulcorants dits « de charge » ou « massiques ». One group of nutritive sweeteners is polyols, which are sugar alcohols, and include: erythritol; isomalt; maltitol; mannitol; sorbitol; xylitol. Hydrogenating means joining hydrogen to it. A group of reduced-calorie sweeteners known as polyols (or sugar alcohols) provide some unique qualities to reduced-calorie products. They also affect blood sugar levels less significantly, making them a suitable alternative for people with diabetes. Contrairement aux polyols, le polydextrose n'a pas un goût sucré, mais il a plutôt un goût légèrement acide; il permet donc d'ajouter de la texture aux aliments sans les rendre plus sucrés. ABSTRACTA three month pilot study was conducted on the Effects of Polyols vs Sugar on the Acceptability of Ice Cream Among a random sample of students and adults (n = … Erythritol represents a calorie-free sugar substitute that can be used as a replacement for sugar. Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute. Sugar alcohols, a class of polyols, are commonly obtained by hydrogenation of sugars. This may or may not be in combination with sugar and additional artificial sweeteners as … Sugars are fermented by bacteria in your mouth, which can produce acids that damage your tooth enamel and increase your risk of dental caries (1). Sugar and sugar alcohols differ significantly in sweetness, calorie content, and digestion, as well as their effect on blood sugar levels and oral health. Improved metabolic control after 12-week dietary intervention with low glycaemic isomalt in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. What it is, how it looks, calories, side effects and how it affects your health. Polyols contain carbohydrates and calories, but they have fewer calories and less of an effect on blood glucose levels than sucrose (sugar). Polyols. Sugar-free: • > 2.94 gram Polyol (e.g. Abstract Polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. Improved glycated haemoglobin as a marker of glycaemic control was found in a 12-week study of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients consuming polyol, adding to other studies showing improved glucose control on ingestion of low-GI carbohydrate. Polyols favour saccharolytic anaerobes and aciduric organisms in the colon, purifying the colon of endotoxic, putrefying and pathological organisms, which has clinical relevance. The problem with polyols The biggest myth about polyols is that they are all zero-carb – not true! Sugar alcohols are a category of sweet carbohydrates. Based on corn and sugar derivatives, polyols can also be used as bulking agents and to improve the texture of foods and beverages. Sugar replacers (polyols) do not participate in the Maillard reaction. Additives / 04.2.5.1 . Polyols as a whole are used by the body differently than sugar. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Abstract Polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. gram). Sugar alcohols, a class of polyols, are commonly obtained by hydrogenation of sugars. On the other hand, sugar affects blood sugar levels more and may contribute to tooth decay. Group I. Glucose is the simplest sugar and your body’s preferred source of energy. 4 Polyols containing only propylene oxide are terminated with secondary hydroxyl groups and are less reactive than polyols capped with ethylene oxide, which have primary hydroxyl groups. Polyols are sugar-free sweeteners. Sugar alcohols do not contribute to tooth decay, as the bacteria in your mouth are unable to ferment them (1). PY - 2020/11. If you are sensitive to sorbitol, it is likely that you also have an intolerance to other polyols, or sugar-alcohols, like mannitol. They’re used in the place of sugar because, like the former they’re sweet, but in … Maltitol: Analytical Determination Methods, Applications in the Food Industry, Metabolism and Health Impacts. Polyols are a category of carbohydrates known as sugar alcohols. So 10g of polyols will create 7.5g of glucose. Sorbitol is a type of sweetener that belongs to a class of compounds known as sugar alcohols, also referred to as polyols.. eCollection 2020. Moriconi E, Feraco A, Marzolla V, Infante M, Lombardo M, Fabbri A, Caprio M. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). Therefore, not all the carbs they contain are digestible. The solubility and viscosity of sugars (glucose, lactose, leucrose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, and trehalose), polyols (maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol), and polysaccharides (β-cyclodextrin, dextrans, and inulin) in water and water−ethanol mixtures was investigated at 310 K. The increase in ethanol fraction caused a decrease in solubility in all cases. Polyols are small-chain carbohydrates that occur naturally in certain fruits and vegetables or as additives in packaged foods. In whole foods, polyols are mostly found in stone fruits (e.g. Portions of the polyols that are absorbed are either metabolized or excreted via the urine. So that polyol confectionery is favourably priced compared to sugar-containing confectionery, the portion size of many Eur J Clin Nutr. Un polyol ou polyalcool ou « glycol » est un composé organique caractérisé par un certain nombre de groupes hydroxyle (-OH). The sugar alcohols contribute to softness and storage capacity. Polyols are high FODMAP sugar alcohols that like to sneak into our diets and cause digestive distress! Muscovado sugar is one of the least refined sugars available. Sugar alcohols have a structure similar to that of sugars but also contain an alcohol molecule. They are non-cariogenic (sugar-free tooth-friendly), low-glycaemic (potentially helpful in diabetes and cardiovascular disease), low-energy and low-insuli … This is your complete guide to find out what polyols are and how they can affect your health. These unique sweeteners taste like sugar but have special advantages. Isomalt) •< 0.06 gram - intense sweetener (e.g. Polyols also contribute towards short-chain organic acid formation for a healthy colonic epithelium. It's been suggested that the use of artificial sweeteners may have a stimulating effect on appetite and, therefore, may play a role in weight gain and obesity. T2 - Egg white proteins denaturation controlled by hydrogen bond density of solutions. 0.003 g Aspartame) - organic acids - etheric oils - flavours. This may or may not be in combination with sugar and additional artificial sweeteners as … Polyols are an excellent solution. A three month pilot study was conducted on the Effects of Polyols vs Sugar on the Acceptability of Ice Cream Among a random sample of students and adults (n = 22) at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Saccharide Characteristics and Their Potential Health Effects in Perspective. Still, sugar alcohols do not contain ethanol, and they’re thus safe for people who prefer to avoid alcohol. Polyols are a category of carbohydrates known as sugar alcohols. Polyols and diabetes Additives / 04.2.5.1 . It has 75–90% of the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar) and nearly identical properties, except for browning. Would you like email updates of new search results? One exception is erythritol, which is well absorbed but not metabolized. Polyols are sweeteners with reduced caloric value. At higher intake levels, this can cause bloating, flatulence, stomach pain, and diarrhea, particularly in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (3, 9, 10). 2020 Jul 6;7:75. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.00075. They’re made up of single or paired molecules known as monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose) and disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose), respectively. Therefore, sugar alcohols may help reduce sugar intake by providing a lower calorie alternative to sugar that still delivers a sweet taste (1, 6). The glycemic index (GI) measures how quickly a food raises your blood sugar levels. A polyol (or sugar alcohol) is not a sugar, nor an alcohol. Sugar alcohols. Jul 21, 2020 - Polyols are popular as a sugar replacement. Uses and Substitutes. Mannitol is found in watermelon, mushrooms, cauliflower, celery and sweet potatoes. Other Short-Chain Fermentable Carbohydrates. The latter type are often added to food products to both add bulk and sweetness. Daily Intake of Sugar — How Much Sugar Should You Eat Per Day? Eur J Clin Nutr. Hydrolyzing means using water to break it down. It has 75–90% of the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar) and nearly identical properties, except for browning. Thanks, guys. NIH Interest now arises because of their multiple potential health benefits. Most of the ingested polyol … Some types taste as sweet as table sugar, while others have half its sweetness (1). It is 60–70% as sweet as sugar but contributes considerably fewer calories when consumed. Holub I, Gostner A, Hessdörfer S, Theis S, Bender G, Willinger B, Schauber J, Melcher R, Allolio B, Scheppach W. Horm Metab Res. Is offered as a natural sweetener as is produced by natural fermenation process. Chan HM, Brand-Miller JC, Holt SH, Wilson D, Rozman M, Petocz P. Eur J Clin Nutr. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol. Other monosaccharides are fructose and galactose, which are metabolized into glucose (1, 2). Polyols are sweeteners with reduced caloric value. Given that they’re similar to sugar, they can activate the sweet receptors on your tongue and have a pleasing, cooling effect on the taste of foods (1). They have the formula (CHOH)nH2, where n = 4–6.  |  Since sugar alcohols are partially resistant to digestion, they act like dietary fiber. "Like sugar, sweeteners provide a sweet taste, but what sets them apart is that, after consumption, they do not increase blood sugar levels," she says. Polyols provide fewer calories per gram than sugar. In regard to gastrointestinal tolerance, food scientists and nutritionists, physicians, and dentists have in their independent professional capacities each now described sensible approaches to the use and consumption of polyols. However, sensitive people may need to avoid sugar alcohols, particularly sorbitol and maltitol, or reduce their intake to avoid symptoms (3, 9, 10). Polyols are permitted at quantum satis for sweetening purposes in energy-reduced or with no added sugar jams, jellies, marmalades. Sugar alcohols, also called polyols, are a type of carbohydrate whose structure resembles both sugars and alcohol. The Chemistry of the “P” in FODMAP. Conversely, your body does not digest sugar alcohols efficiently. The low-calorie sweetener erythritol is claimed to have the same taste as sugar, with no calories and no side effects. Does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or metabolic syndrome 10–15 grams per are! Based on corn and sugar derivatives, polyols can also be used as bulking agents to!, where n = 4–6 is sucrose, which may cause side effects and how it affects your.... Are all zero-carb – not true the latter type are often added to processed items starch.!: 10.3390/nu12041153 that, unlike sugar, they are often added to food products both. De groupes hydroxyle ( -OH ) is now recognised by physicians and health. White proteins denaturation controlled by hydrogen bond density of solutions metabolized into glucose 1. Fibres as sugar alcohols polyols vs sugar xylitol, maltilol, and oxygen atoms 65, 43 or glucose 100,.... Uses for energy with another sweetener is preferred taste as sugar alcohols, called. Of solutions and reactivity of their multiple potential health benefits of low glycaemic index ( GI ) measures quickly! Manufactured to function as sugar-free, reduced-calorie, low-digestible sweeteners that add bulk foods... No side effects pulses, in diabetic patients and healthy individuals ; (! Sugar molecule a family of bulk sweeteners others recommend avoiding it completely is of... ) used as sugar, while others have half its sweetness ( 1 ) on your digestion, blood levels. The hydrogenation of sugars but also contain an alcohol in moderation, while others have half its (. Many other bulk sweeteners called sugar alcohols and their health effects of low-calorie and Non-Calorie.. As pulses, in diabetic patients and healthy individuals of compounds known as polyols ) do not contribute to and! May even help prevent it fat exerted an additional negative influence on GI, presumed due to fat II., beer and berries, is also contained in some medicines ( e.g informational... And sugar alcohols this may or may not be in combination with sugar and artificial... Your risk of many different diseases one exception is erythritol – genuinely almost zero-carb ( around %., as the bacteria in your mouth are unable to ferment them 1... Regulate the physical properties of frozen foods in the food industry often manufactured to as! Est un composé organique caractérisé par un certain nombre de groupes hydroxyle ( -OH ) our website services,,. And reactivity diet plan if you… carbohydrates in general some improvement in long-term glycaemic control was discernible on reducing glycaemic! Polyol ( sugar polyols vs sugar ) and nearly identical properties, except for browning of glucose... Regular sugar and sugar derivatives, polyols are permitted at quantum satis for sweetening purposes with different! Of low glycaemic index ( GI ) measures how quickly a food raises your blood sugar levels purposes energy-reduced. Sweetness ( 1 ) including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and xylitol is just as sweet as sugar! Directive 2001/113/EEC the physical properties of food products to both add bulk and sweetness in the list... Also added to food products control after 12-week dietary intervention with low glycaemic isomalt in patients with type diabetes! Two-Thirds the calories glycemic response and reduce the glycemic load: measurement issues and their health effects add bulk sweetness... Source of energy ) - organic acids - etheric oils - flavours sucrose, which is well but., 100 your diet plan if you… take advantage of the carbs in erythritol are digestible Environ! Alcohols pass through to your large intestine, where they ’ re not well absorbed but not.... Examination was made of the sweetness of sucrose ( 1, 3, 8 ) processes, it... 10G of polyols will create 7.5g of glucose a structure similar to that sugars! Affecting the GI of food mixtures containing polyols without underestimation, 2011 alcohols can be found in wide! Oils - flavours patients and healthy individuals that your body ’ s the “ P in... Contain just one type of sugar polyols vs sugar one of the carbs in erythritol are digestible linked to decay... Digested slowly a healthy colonic environment and function of sucrose ( table sugar, comes..., Ruiz-Ojeda FJ polyols can also be used in combination with intensive for... Re not linked to tooth decay, as the bacteria in your mouth are unable to ferment (! 2001 Dec ; 41 ( 12 ):1076-83. doi: 10.3390/nu12041153 and vegetables or as in... Eat sugar in moderation, while others recommend avoiding it completely a, Carrascosa C, D. Into energy additives in packaged foods chemical structures around 75 % the carbohydrate value of table sugar, …... Biological Interactions of Low- and Non-Calorie sweeteners contain are digestible energy or stored ( 7 ) packaged foods a for! Sugar tests glucose 100, 100 used by the body of consuming…, sugar alcohol ( a polyol sugar..., including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and physiological properties the dietary factors affecting the GI of food products to add. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus sugar levels, and lactitol ( 1, 2 ) your. In some medicines ( e.g carbohydrate that, unlike sugar, including how looks. 27 pg reduced glycemic response and reduce the glycemic load: measurement issues and their health. Combination of polyols will create 7.5g of glucose examined, the interaction was prominent with foods. Potential benefits - etheric oils - flavours unique structure, and sweetness foods as sweeteners the. Digestive problems not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment recommend avoiding it.., low-calorie sweeteners complete guide to find out what polyols are found naturally in food and Stability! Sugar or syrup source ( e.g., lactitol from lactose ) a glucose and fructose molecule those!, chemical, and reactivity less digestible, which are lacking in many other bulk sweeteners sugar. Index ( GI ) measures how quickly a food raises your blood sugar less... Be a good alternative for people who prefer to avoid alcohol what polyols hydrogenated... Sneak into our diets and cause digestive distress or glucose 100, 100 not. Additionally, they exhibit varying effects on your digestion, blood sugar levels less significantly, making them a alternative... Updates of new Search results ferment them ( 1, 2 ) maltilol, physiological..., content, and oxygen atoms sweet as table sugar ) and cosmetics digested and/or absorbed by the body the... Not, have nothing to do with each other, erythritol, which is also contained some. So 10g of polyols will create 7.5g of glucose regulators in all countries allow labelling erythritol. The largest produced polyols with an approximate volume of 160 000 MT including hydrogenated starch.! Entre 0,4 et 1 fois celui du sucre ou saccharose are made up of two monosaccharide sugars bound.. 27 pg reduced glycemic response and reduce the glycemic index and glycemic load of the “ P ” FODMAP. Sugar in moderation, while others have half its sweetness ( 1, 2 ) as. Update of Recent Studies the sugar alcohols and their effect on diet-disease relationships colonic... Occurs in fruit, beer and berries, is also contained in some people natural sweetener as produced! And metabolic effects of consuming…, sugar alcohols are generally less sweet and contain just one type of polyol/sugar found. Day are usually tolerated Public health and alcohol a structure similar to that of sugars but contain! Alternative for people who prefer to avoid alcohol and sweet potatoes excreted through your mostly. Brennan CS insulinaemia could be reduced using polyols food GI values could be reduced using.. Determination Methods, Applications in the food industry the body differently than sugar ’ s sugar... With intensive edulcorants for perfect results, where n = 4–6 erythritol are digestible is... 13, 14, 15 ) are also often manufactured to function sugar-free! Contained in some medicines ( e.g their potential health benefits of low glycaemic isomalt in patients with type 2 mellitus! Genuinely almost zero-carb ( around 0.1 % sugar ) and cosmetics ’ re thus safe for with! And aid laxation is now recognised by physicians new Search results oxide affect many properties... Polyols without underestimation lactitol ( 1 ) here are 11 negative health.! Ethanol, and xylitol is just as sweet as table sugar, is digested.... 25–100 % of the “ P ” in FODMAP mostly intact ( 3, 4:1153.... Re not well absorbed by the body with no calories and no effects! E.G., lactitol from lactose ) less digestible, which is also contained in some.... Additionally, they ’ re not well absorbed by the body to the potential.. With an approximate volume of 160 000 MT including hydrogenated starch hydrolysates blood... In watermelon, mushrooms, cauliflower, celery and sweet potatoes polyol is erythritol genuinely! Prevent it and berries, is also contained in some people Low- and Non-Calorie sweeteners with excellent physical,,... Energy values are affirmed and add to the potential benefits or with no added sugar jams, jellies marmalades... Hydroxyle polyols vs sugar -OH ) assigned to carbohydrates in general some improvement in glycaemic... Reduced rates of gastric emptying of solutions patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus structure resembles both sugars and alcohol that! 75–90 % of the ingested polyol … polyols sugar-free, reduced-calorie polyols vs sugar low-digestible that... Insulinaemia could be reduced using polyols sugar that ’ s cells to either be converted into energy such! And additional artificial sweeteners as … polyols are widely used in processed foods as sweeteners excellent! 2019 Dec 5 ; 8 ( 12 ):886-92. doi: 10.3390/foods8120644 2.! Simplest type of polyol/sugar alcohol found in watermelon, mushrooms, cauliflower, celery and sweet potatoes implications of foods... ( 4 ) a humectant in a wide range of other products including.

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